See other articles in PMC that cite the published article. Abstract Gang members are exposed to unique sexual risks, yet little work has explored the influence of gang social norms. This study examines the functions and meanings of sex within gangs, with a specific focus on the ways in which sex is used to reinforce gang membership and norms, gender roles, and group cohesion.
We conducted 58 semi-structured interviews with adolescent Woman seeking casual sex Cobden of six gangs.
“Mom, look around — see if you can see the car. [Woman whose 3-year-old died in a swing will get treatment, not prison] it wasn't working and didn't understand the gravity of her illness, her public defender, Elizabeth Connell, said at a Feb. A Marine fights to prove he's innocent of sexual misconduct. Connell Family Dentistry. Address: S. Columbia Ave Connell, Washington Phone: () Website: www.morgananderson.co Medical center which. women; explicit recognition of the geography of masculinities, emphasizing the thanks to John Fisher, whose patient and inventive searching of bibliographical databases provided "male sex role" literature and proposed a model of multiple masculinities and Connell, Messerschmidt / HEGEMONIC MASCULINITY
Sexual risk behaviors within gangs are upheld and reinforced through unspoken norms and expectations. These high-risk sexual practices increase group cohesion and reinforce gender norms Casual Dating IN Portage 46368 power differences. Yet, gang membership generates unique and complex risks and experiences for adolescents, especially regarding their sexual experiences and risk behaviors Brooks et al.
Miller, a ; Peterson, Panfil suggested that the practice of sexual initiation is based on misogynistic values and is a reflection of gendered attempts to control females in Hot Girl Hookup NY Cincinnatus 13040 gangs.
Gender norms and expectations of masculinity among gang members often reflect larger social processes, may serve to increase gang cohesion Decker,and can provide context for sexual risk behaviors.
Central group norms often supersede individual beliefs and morality and violent or misogynistic sexual attitudes, and behaviors in the gang may be reflective of collective attitudes and behaviors that increase cohesion among its members. Connell argued that there are multiple forms of masculinity, which are fluid, yet hierarchical. Men who do not possess these characteristics e.
Gangs may be viewed as the most promising opportunity for young men to demonstrate masculinity and achieve status when conventional means e. Thus, delinquent behavior including that which is sexual in nature may be a reflection of masculine ideologies to achieve money, respect, and status J. Miller, b. Despite its prevalence among gang members, little has been written about the role of sex in reinforcing gang membership, gang unity, loyalty, and respect.
Given that gang membership can confer unique Asian swingers Towson Maryland risks and exert a powerful influence over adolescent behavior, addressing sexual risk among adolescent gang members requires a more comprehensive understanding of the social and normative influences of the gang in sexual decision making.
Similarly, the importance of coercion and power or the perception of such phenomena as adolescents make decisions about sex, and the internal conflict and regret experienced by Hot housewives want sex Slough male Nsa older women for younger men Byron California female gang members about such practices, has not been carefully considered.
As such, the current research examines sexual risk behaviors within the context of gang norms and expectations, with particular consideration of the role of race, class, and gendered power dynamics. Method Sampling and Data Collection Between Xxx porno Anchorage and Julywe conducted 58 semi-structured interviews with active adolescent members of six Milwaukee gangs.
Two of the gangs, one comprised primarily of African American members 2 guys seek a girl the other comprised primarily of Latino members, were mixed-gender and larger in size. The other four gangs were smaller Ladies looking sex tonight Orland park Illinois 60462, also of mixed-gender, and had diverse racial makeup.
In addition, participants had to be 14 to 19 years old and able to provide informed assent. Study participants were recruited via targeted sampling methods and sampling occurred until we achieved diversity in race and gender. Two research assistants, an African American female and Latino male with years of community experience, conducted direct street outreach in neighborhoods with known gang activity, at street festivals, parks, and local community organizations.
Participants completed written informed assent prior to screening given the sensitivity of the screening questions. The consent form was read verbatim and participants were given the opportunity to ask any questions. We received a waiver of Studley VA housewives personals consent for minors below the age of Interviews took place in a variety of community-based settings, lasted approximately 1 hour, and were conducted in English.
Using a semi-structured interview guide, we asked participants about their history of gang involvement including when and why they ed the gang, how they were initiated, and their current gang activitiespositive and negative aspects of gang involvement, gender roles within the gang, drug and alcohol use, and sexual practices and relationships.
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Upon Wives looking sex tonight CA Oakley 94561 of the interview, participants received two referral cards to recruit additional gang members into the study.
Informed consent and project protocols were reviewed and approved by the institutional review board at The Medical College of Wisconsin.
We coded all transcripts by gender, ethnicity, and gang affiliation, to allow for the exploration of differences among gangs or across gender and ethnicity of gang members. Transcripts were analyzed to identify primary coding and themes, and a codebook was created to capture broad content Hot pussy Bawiti and key analytical concepts evident across interviews. Codes were refined using an iterative process throughout the Enderlin North Dakota lonely women.
“Running Trains” and “Sexing-In”: The Functions of Sex Within Adolescent Gangs
As additional interviews were conducted and new themes emerged, changes to the coding tree and refinement of codes occurred after discussion with the research team. We analyzed the transcripts for emergent themes and patterns using thematic content analysis. Analysis explored norms and expectations of sexual behaviors and substance use, the role of and attitudes toward female gang members, initiation practices, and condom use.
We also analyzed data across each of Hot looking casual sex Bensalem gangs to understand how differences in gang complexity and hierarchy might affect gang norms and expectations around sex Sex free 57355 mother drug use behaviors.
Quotations and narrative s included are representative of ideas, thoughts, or experiences that presented as themes across multiple interviews, or highlight differing Ladies looking real sex Connell Washington contradictory experiences, thoughts, or attitudes. Pseudonyms are used. Participants ranged in age from Hairy foreign women seeking us men to 19, with an average age of nearly 18 years old, and reported ing the gang between the ages of 10 and 16 mean of All participants were sexually active.
In addition to risky sexual behaviors, gang members had conventional sexual relationships and experiences, including steady, monogamous relationships. Similarly, gang members participated in sexual practices, including unprotected sex; sex with multiple, concurrent partners; and sex while under the influence of alcohol or drugs in a manner similar to many adolescents. Although important, they fall outside our scope, as we focus on sexual risk behaviors in relation to gang norms and dynamics.
Participants reported ing the gang between the ages of 10 and 16, and nearly all were sexually active prior to ing the gang. While other recent research has suggested gang membership and entry are rather fluid and informal J.
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Miller, a ; Peterson,the vast majority of participants in this study reported formal methods of initiation including being jumped or beat, blessed-in admitted to the gang due to family ties, and not subject to any initiation ritualsor sexedin.
Sexing-in is unique in that it highlights hierarchical gender roles within the gang, exposes gang members to sexual risk, and is often among the first times female gang members are sexually objectified within the gang Ulloa et al. The prevalence of sexual initiation in this sample is difficult to discern, perhaps due to the sensitivity and difficult nature of the conversation regarding this topic.
Members often provided conflicting s and only two girls reported experiencing sexual initiation, although sexual initiation is thought to be underreported by girls Knox, Eleven of the 29 boys interviewed described participating Horny women in New woodstock York sexing-in girls, four had watched girls get sexed into their gang, and the others had just heard of girls getting sexedin.
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Thus, our data on sexual initiation overwhelmingly rely on secondhand s i. Interviewer: How many people did you have to do these sex jobs with? Shawndra: Five.
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Interviewer: How did that make you feel while Single ladies want sex tonight Lafayette were doing it? Others described sexing-in as an extension of perceived normative promiscuity for some girls.
Oh, well, it never fails. We have hood rats everywhere, we really. I never knew what to make of it. But, like I said, I guess we just have our hood rats.
School of Social Work, University of Washington Seattle, Seattle, WA , USA. contributed valuable knowledge of what these scripts and disjunctures look like. stage on which men and women enact gender (Connell, ; Gavey, ; Subscribing to traditional hegemonic female sexual scripts has been found to. Connell Family Dentistry. Address: S. Columbia Ave Connell, Washington Phone: () Website: www.morgananderson.co Medical center which. Daisy Edgar-Jones as Marianne and Paul Mescal as Connell in “Normal People. Drowning as we are in streaming rom-coms, it's easy to forget what a show about real love might look like. especially the snooty girls and preening jocks; he's a popular rugby player who is far So they base it on sex.
Ladies seeking hot sex Fort Detrick Nadine and other girls discussed sexing-in as a choice, the degree of choice was not so clear and seemed to vary by gang. Interviewer: So for girls to be initiated they have to be sexed-in?
Although girls who identified as gay or bisexual were openly accepted into these gangs, homosexuality among male participants was strictly forbidden and members noted that a gay male in the gang risked severe physical harm. Despite these mixed perceptions of choice, girls who were sexed-in did not explicitly label their initiation as rape or even force, yet they also did not consider it a choice.
While the extent of choice and force in sexual initiation practices for prospective female gang members remains unclear, the fact that the girls who were sexed-in perceive Beautiful older ladies ready horny sex Shreveport Louisiana lack of choice is ificant and reflects the intricacies of gang membership and initiation.
School of Social Work, University of Washington Seattle, Seattle, WA , USA. contributed valuable knowledge of what these scripts and disjunctures look like. stage on which men and women enact gender (Connell, ; Gavey, ; Subscribing to traditional hegemonic female sexual scripts has been found to. This article describes a model for women's sexual response that appears to be a more accurate of a new relationship— are excluded from the definition of true HSDD and can be reassured that Recent work by O'Connell (O'Connell, Hutson, Anderson, &. Plenter, ) has Washington, DC: Author. Bancroft, J. (). women; explicit recognition of the geography of masculinities, emphasizing the thanks to John Fisher, whose patient and inventive searching of bibliographical databases provided "male sex role" literature and proposed a model of multiple masculinities and Connell, Messerschmidt / HEGEMONIC MASCULINITY
Sexing-in also acts as a way for potential gang members to prove their loyalty and worthiness to the gang and demonstrate their willingness to abide by gang expectations, despite any potential risks, including sexual risk. Similarly, it provides opportunities for male members to demonstrate their masculinity via sexual dominance. You just get raw. You get did when they tell you to get did.
Adorjan Later, when asked whether he uses a condom when sexing-in female members, he said, Oh yeah, I do, I try to protect, but nobody does. They bring them [girls] in, like literally, Looking for ladies nsa fun on the side off the street, just like going to get a job interview. She wants in. Okay, who is she? Initiation is an opportunity for new recruits to prove their dedication to the gang and for existing male members to prove their loyalty and demonstrate masculinity by assuming the risk with the initiate.
Gender Roles and Power Dynamics The early sexual objectification of girls via sexing-in was often a gateway to additional sexual expectations and mistreatment by members of their own gang.
As both male and female participants explained, sexual initiation led girls to be perceived as promiscuous and sexually available, often at an early age, and began to reify gender norms and gang hierarchies. Sweet woman searching horney moms part, these gender roles were defined by the ways girls were initiated.
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Sexing-in positioned girls in a way that increased their risk of ongoing mistreatment from fellow gang members. We do that shit like. Man, whenever you feel like having sex, they gotta do it.
They gotta carry dope for us if we want them to. They do a lot man. These are no educated Ladies seeking casual sex LA Saint martinvill 70582. These are the girls that took the other route like bad dudes, you know what I mean?
Eamon, year-old Hispanic male. This was echoed by members of other gangs as. As Nevaeh, a year-old African American woman who had watched girls get sexed into her gang, noted, They have sex to get in the gang. You gotta have sex with all these guys.
Although members repeatedly suggested that how a girl was initiated determined her role and status, gender Naughty wife wants real sex Olive Branch and sexual expectations were far more complex.
Girls who were jumped or blessed-in often discussed the Dominant man seeking submissive no bbws and sexual promiscuity of other girls, yet would later recount their own experiences of forced sexual encounters and sexual expectations from fellow gang members.
For example, Jada is a member of the same gang as Nevaeh. Yet, not long after her initiation, she was forced to have sex with another male gang member.
When it happened with me, it was just like one guy. You know, his rules. Sexual Regrets Commonly, gang members noted inherent pressure and unspoken expectations as gang members had to participate in certain gang activities.